1. Bommareddy A, Brozena S, Steigerwalt J, Landis T, Hughes S, Mabry E, Knopp A, VanWert AL, Dwivedi C (2017): Medicinal properties of alpha-santalol, a naturally occurring constituent of sandalwood oil: review, Natural Product Research, DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1399387
  2. Moy R and Levenson C. Sandalwood album oil as a botanical therapeutic in dermatology. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2017;10(10):34–39.

Anti-Proliferative and Anti-Cancer effects

  1. Arasada BL, Bommareddy A, Zhang X, Bremmon K, Dwivedi C. Effects of alpha-santalol on proapoptotic caspases and p53 expression in UVB irradiated mouse skin. Anticancer Res. 2008 Jan-Feb;28(1A):129-32. PubMed PMID: 18383835.
  2. Bommareddy A, Crisamore K, Fillman S, Brozena S, Steigerwalt J, Landis T, Vanwert AL, Dwivedi C. Survivin Down-regulation by α-Santalol Is Not Mediated Through PI3K-AKT Pathway in Human Breast Cancer Cells. Anticancer Res. 2015 Oct;35(10):5353-7. PubMed PMID: 26408696.
  3. Bommareddy A, Hora J, Cornish B, Dwivedi C. Chemoprevention by alpha-santalol on UVB radiation-induced skin tumor development in mice. Anticancer Res. 2007 Jul-Aug;27(4B):2185-8. PubMed PMID: 17695502.
  4. Bommareddy A, Rule B, VanWert AL, Santha S, Dwivedi C. α-Santalol, a derivative of sandalwood oil, induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by causing caspase-3 activation. Phytomedicine. 2012 Jun 15;19(8-9):804-11. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.04.003. Epub 2012 May 7. PubMed PMID: 22571975.
  5. Chilampalli C, Zhang X, Kaushik RS, Young A, Zeman D, Hildreth MB, Fahmy H, Dwivedi C. Chemopreventive effects of combination of honokiol and magnolol with α-santalol on skin cancer developments. Drug Discov Ther. 2013 Jun;7(3):109-15. PubMed PMID: 23917859.
  6. Dickinson SE, Olson ER, Levenson C, Janda J, Rusche JJ, Alberts DS, Bowden GT. A novel chemopreventive mechanism for a traditional medicine: East Indian sandalwood oil induces autophagy and cell death in proliferating keratinocytes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014 Sep 15;558:143-52. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2014 Jul 5. PubMed PMID: 25004464; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4172370.
  7. Dozmorov MG, Yang Q, Wu W, Wren J, Suhail MM, Woolley CL, Young DG, Fung KM, Lin HK. Differential effects of selective frankincense (Ru Xiang) essential oil versus non-selective sandalwood (Tan Xiang) essential oil on cultured bladder cancer cells: a microarray and bioinformatics study. Chin Med. 2014 Jul 2;9:18. doi: 10.1186/1749-8546-9-18. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25006348.
  8. Dwivedi C, Abu-Ghazaleh A. Chemopreventive effects of sandalwood oil on skin papillomas in mice. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1997 Aug;6(4):399-401. PubMed PMID: 9370104.
  9. Dwivedi C, Guan X, Harmsen WL, Voss AL, Goetz-Parten DE, Koopman EM, Johnson KM, Valluri HB, Matthees DP. Chemopreventive effects of alpha-santalol on skin tumor development in CD-1 and SENCAR mice. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Feb;12(2):151-6. PubMed PMID: 12582025.
  10. Dwivedi C, Maydew ER, Hora JJ, Ramaeker DM, Guan X. Chemopreventive effects of various concentrations of alpha-santalol on skin cancer development in CD-1 mice. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2005 Oct;14(5):473-6. PubMed PMID: 16175052.
  11. Dwivedi C, Valluri HB, Guan X, Agarwal R. Chemopreventive effects of alpha-santalol on ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 hairless mice. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Sep;27(9):1917-22. Epub 2006 May 5. PubMed PMID: 16679309.
  12. Dwivedi C, Zhang Y. Sandalwood oil prevents skin tumour development in CD1 mice. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1999 Oct;8(5):449-55. PubMed PMID: 10548401.
  13. Kaur M, Agarwal C, Singh RP, Guan X, Dwivedi C, Agarwal R. Skin cancer chemopreventive agent, {alpha}-santalol, induces apoptotic death of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells via caspase activation together with dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. Carcinogenesis. 2005 Feb;26(2):369-80. Epub 2004 Nov 4. PubMed PMID: 15528219.
  14. Lee B, Bohmann J, Reeves T, Levenson C, Risinger AL. α- and β-Santalols Directly Interact with Tubulin and Cause Mitotic Arrest and Cytotoxicity in Oral Cancer Cells. J Nat Prod. 2015 Jun 26;78(6):1357-62. doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00207. Epub 2015 May 20. PubMed PMID: 25993496.
  15. Ortiz C, Morales L, Sastre M, Haskins WE, Matta J. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Assessment of Sandalwood Essential Oil in Human Breast Cell Lines MCF-7 and MCF-10A. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Volume 2016, Article ID 3696232, 13 pages;
  16. Santha S, Bommareddy A, Rule B, Guillermo R, Kaushik RS, Young A, Dwivedi C. Antineoplastic effects of α-santalol on estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells through cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and induction of apoptosis. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56982. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056982. Epub 2013 Feb 22. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2013;8(6). doi:10.1371/annotation/c732480c-eb97-4eff-acb6-300797f4efa9. PubMed PMID: 23451128.
  17. Santha S, Dwivedi C. Anticancer Effects of Sandalwood (Santalum album). Anticancer Res. 2015 Jun;35(6):3137-45. Review. PubMed PMID: 26026073.
  18. Santha S, Dwivedi C. α-Santalol, a skin cancer chemopreventive agent with potential to target various pathways involved in photocarcinogenesis. Photochem Photobiol. 2013 Jul-Aug;89(4):919-26. doi: 10.1111/php.12070. Epub 2013 Apr 1. PubMed PMID: 23480292.
  19. Saraswati S, Kanaujia PK, Agrawal SS. α-Santalol demonstrates antitumor and antiantiangiogenic activities in models of hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Abstracts of the 3rd ITLT Essen 2013 / Digestive and Liver Disease 45S (2013) S249
  20. Saraswati S, Kumar S, Alhaider AA. α-santalol inhibits the angiogenesis and growth of human prostate tumor growth by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated AKT/mTOR/P70S6K signaling pathway. Mol Cancer. 2013 Nov 22;12:147. doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-12-147. PubMed PMID: 24261856.
  21. Sharma M, Levenson C, Clements I, Castella P, Gebauer K and Cox ME (2017). East Indian Sandalwood Oil (EISO) Alleviates Inflammatory and Proliferative Pathologies of Psoriasis.  Pharmacol.8:125. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00125
  22. Zhang X, Chen W, Guillermo R, Chandrasekher G, Kaushik RS, Young A, Fahmy H, Dwivedi C. Alpha-santalol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in both p53-mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells. BMC Res Notes. 2010 Aug 3;3:220. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-220. PubMed PMID: 20682067.
  23. Zhang X, Dwivedi C. Skin cancer chemoprevention by α-santalol. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2011 Jan 1;3:777-87. Review. PubMed PMID: 21196411.

Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidant Effects

  1. BanerjeeS, Ecavade A, Rao AR. Modulatory influence of sandalwood oil on mouse hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity and acid soluble sulphydryl level. Cancer Lett. 1993 Feb;68(2-3):105-9.
  2. Baylac S, and Racine P. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase by essential oils and other natural fragrant extracts. J. Aromatherapy 2003, 13:138-142.
  3. Inouye, S., Takahashi, M., and Abe, S. (2010) Composition, antifungal and radical scavenging activities of 15 rare essential oils. International Journal of Essential Oil Therapeutics 2010, 4:1-10.
  4. Itoi-Ochi S, Matsumura S, Terao t, Murota H and Katayama I. Sandalwood downregulates skin inflammation through 11b-HSD1 activation in keratinocytes. J Dermatological Sci. 2016. 84:e134
  5. Kamal R, Yadav S, Mathur M, Katariya P. Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants. Nat Prod Res. 2012;26(11):1054-62. doi:10.1080/14786419.2011.553720. Epub 2011 Oct 20. PubMed PMID: 22010999.
  6. Misra B, and Dey S. Evaluation of in vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of [alpha]-santalol and sandalwood oil. Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology 20.5 (2013): 409-416.
  7. Palatty PL, Azmidah A, Rao S, Jayachander D, Thilakchand KR, Rai MP, Haniadka  R, Simon P, Ravi R, Jimmy R, D’souza PF, Fayad R, Baliga MS. Topical application  of a sandalwood oil and turmeric based cream prevents radiodermatitis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy: a pilot study. Br J Radiol. 2014 Jun;87(1038):20130490. doi: 10.1259/bjr.20130490. Epub 2014 Apr 2. PubMed PMID: 24694358; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4075548.
  8. Sharma M, Levenson C, Clements I, Castella P, Gebauer K, Cox ME. East Indian Sandalwood Oil (EISO) Alleviates Inflammatory and Proliferative Pathologies of Psoriasis. Front Pharmacol. 2017 Mar 16;8:125. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00125. eCollection 2017. PubMed PMID: 28360856; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5352686.
  9. Sharma M, Levenson C, Bell RH, Anderson SA, Hudson JB, Collins CC, Cox ME. Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokine/chemokine production in skin cells by sandalwood oils and purified α-santalol and β-santalol. Phytother Res. 2014 Jun;28(6):925-32. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5080. Epub 2013 Dec 6. PubMed PMID:

Anti-Microbial Effects (Bacteria, Fungi, Yeast, parasites)

  1. Chao S, Young G, Oberg C, Nakaoka K (2008) Inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by essential oils. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 23:444-449
  2. Chourasia OP, Nigam SS (1978) Antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Santalum album & Glossogyne pinnatifidia. Indian Perfumer 3:205-206
  3. Dikshit, A. and Husain, A. Antifungal action of some essential oils against animal pathogens. Fitoterapia. 1984; 55(3):171-176.
  4. Fujisaki R, Kamei K, Yamamura M, Nishiya1 H, Inouye S, Takahashi M, Abe S. (2012) In Vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 43:270-279
  5. Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. In-vitro activity of essential oils, in particular Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and tea tree oil products, against Candida spp. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1998 Nov;42(5):591-5. PubMed PMID: 9848442.
  6. Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV (1999) Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. Journal of Applied Microbiology 86:985–990
  7. InouyeS, Uchida K, Abe S. Vapor activity of 72 essential oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes. J Infect Chemother. 2006 Aug;12(4):210-6. PMID:16944261
  8. Inouye, S., Takahashi, M., and Abe, S. Composition, antifungal and radical scavenging activities of 15 rare essential oils. 2010. International Journal of Essential Oil Therapeutics 4, 1-10.
  9. Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Denkova Z, Stoyanova A, Murgov I, Gearon V, Birkbeck S, Schmidt E, Geissler M. Comparative study on the antimicrobial activities of different sandalwood essential oils of various origin. Flavour Fragr. J. 2006. 21:465–468.
  10. Misra BB, Dey S. Comparative phytochemical analysis and antibacterial efficacy of in vitro and in vivo extracts from East Indian sandalwood tree (Santalum album). Lett Appl Microbiol. 2012 Dec;55(6):476-86. doi: 10.1111/lam.12005. Epub 2012 Oct 26. PubMed PMID: 23020220.
  11. MorrisJA, Khettry A, Seitz EW. Antimicrobial activity of aroma chemicals and essential oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 1979 May;56(5):595-603
  12. Moy RL, Levenson C, So JJ, Rock JA. Single-center, open-label study of a proprietary topical 0.5% salicylic acid-based treatment regimen containing sandalwood oil in adolescents and adults with mild to moderate acne. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012 Dec;11(12):1403-8. PubMed PMID: 23377508.
  13. Nardoni S, Giovanelli S, Pistelli L, Mugnaini L, Profili G, Pisseri F, Mancianti F. In Vitro Activity of Twenty Commercially Available, Plant-Derived Essential Oils against Selected Dermatophyte Species. Nat Prod Commun. 2015 Aug;10(8):1473-8. PubMed PMID: 26434145.
  14. Okazaki K, Oshima S (1953) Antimicrobial effect of essential oils. Yakugaku Zasshi 7:344-347
  15. Rants’o TA, Alturki M, Levenson C, Calderón AI (2017) LC-MS-based Screening of East Indian Sandalwood Oil for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Shikimate Kinase and Plasmodium falciparum Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitory Activities. Nat. Prod Commun., In Press
  16. Surain P, Kumar N, Dhiman R. Meashi V. Santalum Album: Clinical aspects for treatment of Candida Int J Pharm Sci and Res. 2016 7(7): 2813-2829. doi: 10.13040/uspr.0975-8283.7(7).2813-29.

Antiviral Effects

  1. Benencia F, Courrèges MC. Antiviral activity of sandalwood oil against herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2. Phytomedicine. 1999 May;6(2):119-23. PubMed PMID: 10374251.
  2. Burdock GA, Carabin IG. Safety assessment of sandalwood oil (Santalum album ). Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Feb;46(2):421-32. Epub 2007 Sep 21. Review. PubMed PMID: 17980948.
  3. Haque M, Coury DL. Topical Sandalwood Oil for Common Warts. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2017 Feb 1:9922817691536. doi: 10.1177/0009922817691536. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28954520
  4. Haque M, Coury DL. (2017): Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with an East Indian Sandalwood Oil product, Journal of Dermatological Treatment, DOI:10.1080/09546634.2017.1402115
  5. Koch C, Reichling J, Schneele J, Schnitzler P. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2. Phytomedicine. 2008 Jan;15(1-2):71-8. Epub 2007 Oct 31. PubMed PMID: 17976968.
  6. Paulpandi M, Kannan S, Thangam R, Kaveri K, Gunasekaran P, Rejeeth C. In vitro anti-viral effect of β-santalol against influenza viral replication. Phytomedicine. 2012 Feb 15;19(3-4):231-5. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2011.11.006. Epub 2011 Dec 20. PubMed PMID: 22192867.

Other Effects

  1. Matsumura S, Itoi-Ochi S, Terao M, Murota H, Katayama I. Sandalwood oil enhanced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and promoted wound healing. J Dermatological Sci. 2016. 84:e137.